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Tetanus immune globulin (TIg), human, for intramuscular use

CPT4 code

Name of the Procedure:

Tetanus Immune Globulin (TIg), Human, for Intramuscular Use
Common Name(s): Tetanus Injection, Tetanus Shot, Tetanus Immunization

Summary

Tetanus Immune Globulin (TIg) is an injection given to patients who are at risk of or have been exposed to tetanus, a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection. The injection provides immediate, short-term protection by supplying antibodies that neutralize the tetanus toxin.

Purpose

TIg is used to prevent or treat tetanus infection. The primary goal is to provide passive immunity to individuals who have not been adequately immunized or whose immunization status is unknown, thereby reducing the risk of developing severe complications associated with tetanus.

Indications

  • Deep or dirty wounds, particularly in individuals with an unknown or incomplete vaccination history.
  • Burns, punctures, or animal bites.
  • Symptoms of early tetanus (e.g., muscle stiffness, jaw cramping).
  • Incomplete vaccination series or uncertain immunization status against tetanus.

Preparation

  • No specific preparation, such as fasting, is generally required.
  • Patients should provide their vaccination history to assess the need for TIg.
  • The affected wound or area should be cleaned and disinfected prior to the injection.

Procedure Description

  1. The healthcare provider cleans the injection site, typically the upper arm or thigh.
  2. TIg is drawn into a syringe.
  3. The injection is administered intramuscularly, meaning it goes into the muscle.
  4. Pressure is applied to the injection site to minimize bleeding.
  5. The patient may need to stay for a short monitoring period to ensure there are no immediate adverse reactions.

Duration

The procedure usually takes about 5-15 minutes.

Setting

TIg injections are generally administered in a hospital emergency room, outpatient clinic, or a doctor’s office.

Personnel

  • Registered Nurse (RN)
  • Physician or Medical Doctor (MD)
  • Physician Assistant (PA)

Risks and Complications

  • Common: Pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site.
  • Rare: Allergic reactions, fever, headache, dizziness, or anaphylactic shock.

Benefits

  • Provides immediate, short-term immunity against tetanus.
  • Reduces the risk of developing severe tetanus complications, such as muscle spasms or lockjaw.
  • Helps the body combat tetanus toxins effectively.

Recovery

  • Some mild soreness at the injection site can be expected.
  • Patients should monitor for any signs of infection or adverse reaction for a few days.
  • Follow-up appointments are rarely needed unless complications arise.

Alternatives

  • Tetanus toxoid vaccine for active, long-term immunization (requires time to build immunity).
  • Proper wound care to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Pros: Tetanus toxoid provides longer-lasting immunity.
  • Cons: TIg provides immediate, but short-term protection, unlike the toxoid.

Patient Experience

Patients typically feel a brief sting or discomfort during the injection. Mild soreness at the injection site is common but usually resolves within a few days. Pain management can include over-the-counter analgesics like acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Patients are often reassured by the immediate protection provided by TIg.

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