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Infectious agent antigen detection by immunofluorescent technique; influenza A virus

CPT4 code

Name of the Procedure:

Infectious Agent Antigen Detection by Immunofluorescent Technique; Influenza A Virus

Summary

This procedure uses a specialized technique to detect the presence of Influenza A virus antigens in a patient's sample. It involves applying antibodies that bind to the virus and emit fluorescent light, making the virus visible under a microscope.

Purpose

The procedure is used to diagnose infections caused by the Influenza A virus. Early and accurate detection helps in managing the disease effectively and preventing its spread.

Indications

  • Symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, and fatigue suggestive of influenza.
  • Exposure to a confirmed case of Influenza A.
  • Patients with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions who are at higher risk of complications from the flu.

Preparation

  • No special preparation is usually required.
  • Patients may need to provide a respiratory sample, usually a nasal or throat swab.
  • Inform the healthcare provider about any medications being taken.

Procedure Description

  1. A swab is taken from the patient's nose or throat to collect samples.
  2. The sample is treated with antibodies specific to the Influenza A virus.
  3. These antibodies are tagged with a fluorescent dye.
  4. If the virus is present, the antibodies will bind to it and fluoresce under a microscope.
  5. The laboratory specialist examines the sample for the presence of fluorescence, indicating a positive result.

Tools and Equipment:

  • Nasal or throat swabs.
  • Fluorescently tagged antibodies.
  • Fluorescence microscope.

No anesthesia or sedation is required for this procedure.

Duration

The procedure typically takes a few hours to process and analyze the sample in the laboratory. Sample collection takes only a few minutes.

Setting

  • Outpatient clinic
  • Hospital laboratory

Personnel

  • Nurse or medical technician for sample collection.
  • Laboratory technician or pathologist for processing and analysis.

Risks and Complications

  • Minimal risk involved with sample collection, such as mild discomfort or gag reflex.
  • False negatives or positives due to improper sample collection or handling.

Benefits

  • Quick and accurate diagnosis of Influenza A virus infection.
  • Helps in timely administration of antiviral medications.
  • Reduces the spread of the virus by confirming infectious cases.

Recovery

  • No recovery time required post sample collection.
  • Follow-up may be necessary depending on the results and physician's advice.

Alternatives

  • Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests
  • Viral cultures Each alternative varies in terms of accuracy, speed, and cost.

Patient Experience

  • Slight discomfort during sample collection.
  • No significant pain associated with the procedure.
  • Patients can return to normal activities immediately after the sample is taken.

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