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Particle agglutination; screen, each antibody

CPT4 code

Name of the Procedure:

Particle Agglutination Screening; Antibody Testing (also known as Passive Agglutination Assay)


Particle Agglutination Screening is a laboratory test used to detect the presence of specific antibodies in a patient's blood. This test involves mixing the blood sample with particles coated with antigen to observe agglutination (clumping), indicating the presence of antibodies.


Medical Condition

This test is used to identify antibodies related to various diseases and infections, such as autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and blood transfusion compatibility.

  • Detect the presence of specific antibodies.
  • Aid in diagnosing medical conditions.
  • Monitor the immune response in patients.


Symptoms or Conditions
  • Suspicion of autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus).
  • Chronic or acute infections.
  • Pre-transfusion compatibility testing.
Patient Criteria
  • Patients with unexplained symptoms matching patterns of autoimmune disorders.
  • Individuals needing blood transfusions or organ transplants.
  • Cases where infectious disease is suspected based on clinical signs.


  • No special preparation is typically required.
  • Patients should follow any specific instructions provided by their healthcare provider.

Procedure Description

  1. A blood sample is drawn from the patient, typically from a vein in the arm.
  2. The blood sample is processed to separate the serum containing antibodies.
  3. The serum is mixed with particles (e.g., latex beads) coated with the specific antigen.
  4. The mixture is observed for agglutination, which indicates the presence of antibodies.
Tools and Equipment
  • Blood collection equipment (needles, vials).
  • Antigen-coated particles (latex beads).
  • Microscopy or other visualization methods.
Anesthesia or Sedation
  • Not required for this procedure.


  • The procedure typically takes 30 minutes to an hour, including the time for blood sample collection and analysis.


  • The procedure is performed in a laboratory setting, either in a hospital or an outpatient clinic.


  • Phlebotomist or nurse for blood sample collection.
  • Laboratory technician or medical technologist for test processing and analysis.

Risks and Complications

Common Risks
  • Minimal risks such as slight bruising or discomfort at the blood draw site.
Rare Risks
  • Infection or hematoma at the puncture site.
  • Interpretation errors, though rare, can occur and might require retesting.


  • Provides crucial information for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions.
  • Helps tailor specific treatment plans quickly and accurately.


  • No significant recovery time or special care is needed post-procedure.
  • Patients can resume normal activities immediately after the blood draw.


  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
  • Immunofluorescence assays.
Pros and Cons
  • ELISA and immunofluorescence assays are other methods to detect antibodies, offering different sensitivity and specificity profiles compared to Particle Agglutination.

Patient Experience

During the Procedure
  • Mild discomfort from the blood draw.
  • Minimal to no pain expected.
After the Procedure
  • Slight soreness or bruising at the venipuncture site.
  • No severe pain or prolonged discomfort.

Pain management and comfort measures include applying a warm compress to the blood draw site if needed.

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