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Infectious agent genotype analysis by nucleic acid (DNA or RNA); cytomegalovirus

CPT4 code

Name of the Procedure:

Infectious agent genotype analysis by nucleic acid (DNA or RNA); cytomegalovirus (CMV) genotyping


This procedure is used to analyze the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a patient's sample. It helps to determine the specific genotype of the virus.


The procedure is employed to identify the specific genotype of the CMV virus in infected individuals. It helps guide treatment decisions, especially in cases of CMV resistance to antiviral medications, and can also provide insights into the source and pattern of infection.


  • Symptoms of CMV infection: fever, fatigue, muscle aches.
  • Immunocompromised patients (e.g., organ transplant recipients, HIV patients) at risk of CMV complications.
  • Poor response to standard antiviral therapies, suggesting possible drug resistance.
  • Need for epidemiological information to trace the source of infection.


  • No specific fasting or dietary restrictions are typically required.
  • Patients should inform their healthcare provider of all medications and supplements they are taking.
  • Blood draw or sample collection, like urine or throat swab, might be needed; the provider will give specific instructions based on the sample type required.

Procedure Description

  1. A sample is collected from the patient, typically blood, urine, saliva, or other tissue.
  2. The sample is sent to a laboratory where it undergoes nucleic acid extraction to isolate DNA or RNA.
  3. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other molecular techniques, the CMV genetic material is amplified for detailed analysis.
  4. Genotyping is performed to determine the specific variant of CMV present in the sample.


The sample collection takes only a few minutes. Laboratory analysis typically takes a few hours to days, depending on the laboratory's workflow and the complexity of the test.


Sample collection occurs in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or specialized testing facility. The actual genetic analysis is performed in a medical laboratory.


  • Sample collection: Nurses or phlebotomists.
  • Genetic analysis: Medical laboratory scientists or molecular biologists.

Risks and Complications

  • Sample collection risks: Minor pain, bruising, or infection at the site of sample collection.
  • Laboratory risks: Minimal, mainly related to handling and processing the sample.


  • Accurate identification of CMV genotype.
  • Tailored antiviral therapy based on specific viral genotype.
  • Better management of CMV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients.


  • No significant recovery time required post-sample collection.
  • Patients can resume normal activities immediately after the sample collection.


  • Serological tests for CMV (detect antibodies but not the genotype).
  • Imaging studies or biopsy for symptomatic localization if direct information about tissue infection is needed.
  • Each alternative carries its own pros and cons, such as less specificity for genotyping in serological tests.

Patient Experience

  • During procedure: Minor discomfort during sample collection (e.g., blood draw).
  • After procedure: No significant discomfort or pain expected.
  • Pain management: Standard measures for sample collection discomfort, such as applying pressure or a bandage post-blood draw.

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